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The aim of this study is to verify, by means of a diachronic use of various landscape ecology indices, that the huge increase in external energy expended by the agrarian systems following the “green revo-lution” in the second half of the twentieth century, together with the drastic reduction in their effi ciency, are closely related to the land-use changes that have brought about the degradation of the traditional Mediterranean landscapes, characterized as they were by agricultural and forest mosaics. Th e need to resort to external biophysical fl ows and the abandonment of integrated land-use management has led to the loss of the ecological functionality of the whole land matrix.